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In response to rising global greenhouse gas concentrations and temperatures, on December 12, 2015, 197 member parties of the United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) unanimously agreed at the Paris climate change conference (PCCC) to adopt the Paris agreement, which lays out plans for global action to address climate change after 2020 (Berndes et al. 2016). Under the Paris agreement, each country agreed to limit the global temperature increase to less than 2 C and work to limit the global temperature increase to less than 1.5 C (Agreement 2015). As of February 2021, 124 countries worldwide have declared their intention to become carbon neutral and achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 or 2060 (Chen 2021). To attain the targets stipulated by the Paris agreement and support sustainable development, it is necessary to not only reduce CO2 emissions but also to remove CO2 from the atmosphere to achieve net-zero carbon or negative carbon emissions through various social, economic, environmental and technological measures.
Carbon neutrality, a state of net-zero carbon emissions, can be achieved by balancing the total amount of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas emissions produced directly or indirectly by a country, company, product, activity, or individual over a certain period via carbon offset or removal initiatives. Furthermore, to achieve carbon neutrality, the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), in its special report on global warming of 1.5 C, also emphasized the need to reduce and phase out fossil fuels, use more renewable energy, improve energy efficiency, and highlighted the importance of implementing these measures in cities to achieve carbon neutrality (Masson-Delmotte et al. 2018). Moreover, to achieve net-zero carbon emissions and sustainable development, carbon removal or sequestration in terrestrial and marine ecosystems must be promoted (Cheng 2020). Different regions, countries, and cities have developed strategies to improve carbon removal or sequestration and achieve carbon neutrality (Hepburn et al. 2021; Pedersen et al. 2020; Huang and Zhai 2021), yet achieving net-zero carbon emissions is challenging (Wang et al. 2021). 153554b96e